Volume 3, Issue 2, December 2019, Page: 27-35
Impact of Water Governance Regimes on Forage Characteristics and Soil Properties in Kajiado County, Kenya
Stanley Jawuoro, African Climate Leadership Program, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Erick Omollo, African Climate Leadership Program, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Manei Naanyu, African Climate Leadership Program, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Danny Simatele, Department of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Consolata Muhindi, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Nairobi, Kenya
Received: Jul. 22, 2019;       Accepted: Aug. 20, 2019;       Published: Dec. 20, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijaos.20190302.11      View  564      Downloads  166
Abstract
Water governance regimes have a profound effect on vegetation and soil attributes. This is because they directly impact on grazing patterns. Kenyan peri-urban drylands are grappling with climate change and variability, population spill-over from neighboring towns and cities and land degradation that put strain on water resources. Water demand therefore outstrips supply. Sustainable water governance regimes are therefore a prerequisite for climate change resilience, building of adaptive capacities and reduction of climate induced vulnerabilities. This study sought to evaluate the impact of various water regimes on vegetation and soil attributes. Organizational and operational characteristics of diverse water governance regimes were studied and measured against respective vegetation and soil physio-chemical attributes. Soil and vegetation data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA on GenStat 15th edition. The study revealed a shifting trend from traditional water resource management institutions to more formalized regimes. Both public and private water governance regimes and systems existed though most of these lacked proper documentation and clearly defined terms of engagement among relevant actors. These systems applied diverse water management approaches creating significance differences in plant species diversity (p<0.05, F=0.565), richness (p<0.05, F=14.717), soil organic carbon (p<0.001, F=10.67), pH (p<0.05, F=4.84) and particle size distribution (p<0.05, F=5.72) because of varying extents of range access and use. This study concluded that there is need for integrating indigenous knowledge into modern water governance approaches for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Both national and devolved governance structures should therefore invest in awareness and capacity building to enhance knowledge and skill transfer that would spur development of ecologically, socially and economically responsive systems aimed at augmenting climate resilience of current and emerging production systems and livelihoods.
Keywords
Water Governance Policy, Climate Resilience, Natural Resource Conservation
To cite this article
Stanley Jawuoro, Erick Omollo, Manei Naanyu, Danny Simatele, Consolata Muhindi, Impact of Water Governance Regimes on Forage Characteristics and Soil Properties in Kajiado County, Kenya, International Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2019, pp. 27-35. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaos.20190302.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Barrow, E., and Mogaka, H. (2007). Kenya’s drylands–wastelands or an undervalued national economic resource IUCN–The World Conservation Union, Nairobi.
[2]
Huho, J. M., Ngaira, J. K., and Ogindo, H. O. (2011). Living with drought: the case of the Maasai pastoralists of northern Kenya. Educational Research, 2 (1), 779-789.
[3]
Kreft, S., Eckstein, D., Junghans, L., Kerestan, C., & Hagen, U. (2013). Global climate risk index 2014. Who suffers most from extreme weather events, 1 Á31.
[4]
Kioko, J., and Okello, M. M. (2010). Land use cover and environmental changes in a semi-arid rangeland, Southern Kenya. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 3 (11), 322.
[5]
Ogutu, J. O., Piepho, H. P., Said, M. Y., and Kifugo, S. C. (2014). Herbivore dynamics and range contraction in Kajiado County Kenya: climate and land use changes, population pressures, and governance, policy and human-wildlife conflicts. The Open Ecology Journal, 7 (1).
[6]
Morton, J., & Anderson, S. (2008). Climate Change and Agrarian Societies in Drylands. In Workshop on Social Dimensions of Climate Change. Washington DC: World Bank.
[7]
Luwesi, C. (2010). Hydro-economic Inventory in a Changing Environment: An assessment of the efficiency of farming water demand under fluctuating rainfall regimes in semi-arid lands of South-East Kenya. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic.
[8]
Mathenge, J. M., Luwesi, C. N., Shisanya, C. A., Mahiri, I., Akombo, R. A., and Mutiso, M. N. (2014). Water security where governmental policies conflict with local practices: the roles of community water management systems in Ngaciuma-Kinyaritha, Kenya. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development|| ISSN 2278–0211, 3 (5).
[9]
K'Akumu, O. A. (2007). Toward effective governance of water services in Kenya. Water Policy, 9 (5), 529-543.
[10]
Mganga, K. Z., Musimba, N. K. R., Nyariki, D. M., Nyangito, M. M., and Mwang'ombe, A. W. (2015). The choice of grass species to combat desertification in semi‐arid Kenyan rangelands is greatly influenced by their forage value for livestock. Grass and Forage Science, 70 (1), 161-167.
[11]
Egeru, A., Wasonga, O., Kyagulanyi, J., Majaliwa, G. M., MacOpiyo, L., and Mburu, J. (2014). Spatio-temporal dynamics of forage and land cover changes in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Pastoralism, 4 (1), 1-21.
[12]
Egeru, A., Wasonga, O., MacOpiyo, L., Mburu, J., Tabuti, J. R., and Majaliwa, M. G. (2015). Piospheric influence on forage species composition and abundance in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Pastoralism, 5 (1), 1.
[13]
Jawuoro, S. O., Koech, O. K., Karuku, G. N., & Mbau, J. S. (2017). Organization And Performance Of Water Resource Users’associations In The Southern Rangelands Of Kenya. Tropical And Subtropical Agroecosystems, 20 (3), 401-411.
[14]
Ogutu, J. O., Owen-Smith, N., Piepho, H. P., Said, M. Y., Kifugo, S., Reid, R. S., and Andanje, S. (2013). Changing wildlife populations in Nairobi National Park and adjoining Athi-Kaputiei Plains: collapse of the migratory wildebeest. Open Conservation Biology Journal, 7, 11-26.
[15]
Middleton, N., and Thomas, D. (1997). World atlas of desertification (No. Ed. 2). Arnold, Hodder Headline, PLC.
[16]
de Leeuw, P. N., Grandin, B. E., and Bekure, S. (1991). Introduction to the Kenyan rangelands and Kajiado district. Maasai herding: An analysis of the livestock production system of Maasai pastoralists in eastern Kajiado District, Kenya, 92-9053.
[17]
Ombogo, M. O. (2013). The impact of climate variability on pastoralism: forage dynamics and trends in cattle population in Kajiado County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
[18]
Bekure, S. (Ed.). (1991). Maasai herding: an analysis of the livestock production system of Maasai pastoralists in eastern Kajiado District, Kenya (Vol. 4). ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD).
[19]
Morara, M. K., MacOpiyo, L., & Kogi-Makau, W. (2014). Land use, land cover change in urban pastoral interface. A case of Kajiado County, Kenya. Journal of Geography and Regional planning, 7 (9), 192-202.
[20]
Krebs, C. J. (1989). Ecological Methodology. Harper Collins Inc., New York.
[21]
Day, P. R. (1965). Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. Physical and mineralogical properties, including statistics of measurement and sampling, (methodsofsoilana), 545-567.
[22]
Brenner, J. M., and Mulvaney, C. S. (1982). Nitrogen total. Methods in Soil Analysis: Agronomy. Ed. CA Black, 595-624.
[23]
Buresh, R. J., Austin, E. R., and Craswell, E. T. (1982). Analytical methods in15N research. Fertilizer Research, 3 (1), 37-62.S.
[24]
Nelson, D. W., and Sommers, L. (1982). Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, (methodsofsoilan2), 539-579.
[25]
Blake, G. R. (1965). Bulk density. Methods of soil analysis, 2, 375-377.
[26]
McKenzie, N., Jacquier, D., Isbell, R., and Brown, K. (2004). Australian soils and landscapes: an illustrated compendium. CSIRO publishing.
[27]
Flint, A. L., and Flint, L. E. (2002). 2.2 Particle Density. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 4 Physical Methods, (methodsofsoilan4), 229-240.
[28]
Reynolds, W. D., and Elrick, D. E. (2002). Constant head soil core (tank) method. Methods of soil analysis. Part, 4, 804-808.
[29]
Coulibaly-Lingani, P., Savadogo, P., Tigabu, M., and Oden, P. C. (2011). Factors influencing people's participation in the forest management program in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Forest Policy and Economics, 13 (4), 292-302.
[30]
Agevi, H., Wabusya, M., and Tsingalia, H. M. (2014). Community Forest Associations and Community-Based Organizations: Redesigning their Roles in Forest Management and Conservation in Kenya.
[31]
Han, G., Hao, X., Zhao, M., Wang, M., Ellert, B. H., Willms, W., and Wang, M. (2008). Effect of grazing intensity on carbon and nitrogen in soil and vegetation in a meadow steppe in Inner Mongolia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 125 (1), 21-32.
[32]
Bell, A. L. W. (2010). Impacts of soil compaction by livestock on crop productivity–a modelling analysis. In Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of Soil Science: Soil solutions for a changing world, Brisbane, Australia, 1-6 August 2010. Symposium 3.1. 2 Farm system and environment impacts (pp. 117-120). International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS), c/o Institut für Bodenforschung, Universität für Bodenkultur.
[33]
Homewood, K. (2009). Policy and practice in Kenya rangelands: Impacts on livelihoods and wildlife. In Staying Maasai? (pp. 335-367). Springer New York.
[34]
Smet, M., and Ward, D. (2006). Soil quality gradients around water-points under different management systems in a semi-arid savanna, South Africa. Journal of Arid Environments, 64 (2), 251-269.
[35]
Tarhouni, M., Salem, F. B., Belgacem, A. O., and Neffati, M. (2010). Acceptability of plant species along grazing gradients around watering points in Tunisian arid zone. Flora-Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 205 (7), 454-461.
[36]
Beukes, P. C., and Ellis, F. (2003). Soil and vegetation changes across a Succulent Karoo grazing gradient. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 20 (1), 11-19.
[37]
Al-Seekh, S. H., Mohammad, A. G., and Amro, Y. A. (2009). Effect of grazing on soil properties at southern part of West Bank Rangeland. Hebron University Research Journal, 4 (1), 35-53.
[38]
Shahriary, E., Palmer, M. W., Tongway, D. J., Azarnivand, H., Jafari, M., and Saravi, M. M. (2012). Plant species composition and soil characteristics around Iranian watering points. Journal of Arid Environments, 82, 106-114.
[39]
Alphayo, L. (2015). Effects of holistic grazing management on soil physico-chemical properties and herbaceous vegetation production in Naibunga Conservancy, Laikipia County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
[40]
Wairore, J. N. (2015). Influence of enclosure management systems on rangeland rehabilitation in Chepareria, West Pokot County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
Browse journals by subject